The following is a list of chemicals used at the Emporia Water Treatment Plant. The list will briefly describe the chemical and how it is used in the treatment process.

Ammonia is colorless, lighter than air gas that has a piercing odor. Ammonium Hydroxide is gaseous ammonia dissolved in water. In the treatment process it is used with Chlorine to form chloramine, which is a disinfectant, used in the distribution system to prevent bacterial re-growth in the system. Typically .87 parts per million is used.

chemicals1Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide is odorless, colorless, and heavier than air. It is non-flammable and is a common fire-extinguishing agent because of its ability to displace oxygen. In the treatment process it is used to adjust and stabilize the pH (hydrogen ion concentration) in the water being treated.

Chlorine is not flammable, but it can react with organic compounds such as petroleum products, ether, and alcohols with explosive violence. It is a corrosive, very irritating gas. It is used in the treatment process as a disinfectant. The recommended residual is 2.4 parts per million.

Sodium Fluoride is used at the plant to help prevent tooth decay. It comes in a powder form and is an irritant if inhaled. Plant operator’s test for fluoride on a daily basis and a 1.0 milligram per liter dosage is maintained as recommended by Kansas Department of Health and Environment.

Aluminum Sulfate
Aluminum Sulfate is a non-flammable powder or liquid. It is acidic and very corrosive to all ferrous metals. It is used in the treatment process as a coagulant. Aluminum Sulfate settles out in the process and is removed.

Polymers come in either liquid or powder form. They are used in treatment process as a coagulant. The polymer settles out in the process and is removed.

Ozone is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. It is a very powerful oxidant that is produced on site at the plant and is used for disinfectant and also for taste and odor control.

Lime is primarily used during the water softening process.


This list has by no means covered all of the chemicals used at the plant. Our intent with this list is to point out the chemicals actually used in the treatment process. Chemicals used in the laboratory for analysis would be too extensive to list.

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